5W – ChatGPT: Conversational AI

Thank you for reading! Please see “Why 5W?”  for context, methodology and disclaimers.

ChatGPT Overview

You’ve heard all about it! You’ve heard it is either the greatest thing ever or will usher in the age of The Terminator. It is either the ultimate Cliff’s Notes or the means for students to rescue homework their dog devoured at the last, life-saving moment. You might hear it is going to eliminate jobs or create a new class of workers. You might even believe it is an all-knowing oracle, preparing to unleash digital doom upon humanity.

It’s not. Or is it?

Some might say it is stunted, relying only on trained data, or data obtained prior to a specific date. They might cite a lack of accuracy or it is unable to apply common sense reasoning. They might say it takes too many prompt attempts to get an acceptable answer or the results are dry, or robot-like. You might hear cries of plagiarism .. a genuine concern, given how ChatGPT is populated and trained.

No argument from me on any of these points. I feel the time is ripe for a healthy discussion about these concerns, capabilities, restrictions, and more. This is the first of a larger document set that will address practices and use cases companies should consider when adopting and rolling the use of ChatGPT within their organization.

By way of overview, ChatGPT wrote the following paragraph with the initial prompt: “Write a paragraph for a blog post about ChatGPT with the following section heading: ChatGPT Overview.”

Introducing ChatGPT, an advanced language model powered by OpenAI’s cutting-edge GPT-3.5 architecture. ChatGPT has revolutionized the field of Conversational AI, enabling human-like interactions and opening up endless possibilities for businesses and individuals alike. In this blog post, we will delve into the various aspects of ChatGPT, exploring its business benefits, capabilities, use cases, providers, audiences, and ultimately, its impact on the world.

Dry, and accurate. It appears that ChatGPT has no lack of ego .. it is quite happy to be writing about itself. To further my statement, it titled the post-to-be: “Unleashing the Power of ChatGPT: Revolutionizing Conversational AI”. I softened it a wee bit.

Ways I think of ChatGPT:

  • It is the smartest ‘friend’ that I have. A friend to whom I can pose any question at any hour of the day or night.
  • This friend listens. Even if I’m not fond of the first response, I can simply clarify without having to retype my entire prompt. I just tell it what I don’t like about it, or to make it funny, or to lengthen or shorten, adding (or removing) the level of detail.
  • It is a resource on which I can rely for step-by-step instructions from PC support, recipes, research tracks, and more.
  • It can replace using a search engine (YMMV, based on the age of the content) .. rather than a list of links, it can provide an article that addresses my request criteria.
  • With an appropriate prompt, it can deliver excellent first-draft content .. this puts me more into editing, rather than writing mode.
  • It has a wicked sense of humor .. something of which I pride myself.

ChatGPT is early stage, but eminently functional. There is a growing ecosystem of companies working with it to extend the functionality to yield real business results, provide guardrails and integrate the capabilities into applications.

Caveat: Be aware of the results. OpenAI does not guarantee the content is fresh or positively accurate. This will improve over time, or when you start to work with released versions.

ChatGPT Business Benefits

Even at an early stage, and without integration, ChatGPT adoption brings numerous potential benefits to businesses by offering a scalable, automated and cost-effective solution across a wide variety of use cases. For the average user, ChatGPT is ‘free’, at least at the moment. An end user need only sign up with OpenAI, confirm their email address and they’re ready to write prompts. Bear in mind, they’ll be working with the ‘default’ version of ChatGPT, as offered at that moment. The good news: you can simply prompt “What version of ChatGPT are you?”, to which I received the response:

I am an AI language model based on the GPT-3.5 architecture developed by OpenAI. My responses and capabilities are derived from the training data and knowledge available up until September 2021. It’s worth noting that I don’t have access to information or updates beyond that point. If there have been any newer versions or updates to ChatGPT released by OpenAI since then, I may not be aware of them or have knowledge about their specific features or improvements.

Once a company starts to integrate ChatGPT into its product offering or into its infrastructure, it’ll need a more formal (read: paying) relationship with OpenAI. This will get the company access to more current language models, enable the ability to train the model, provide API access, and more.

I view ChatGPT as a platform, an enabling technology and a means to extend existing offerings in ways we’ve yet to imagine .. hence I’m pressing ‘pause’ on Business Benefits here, as I’ll go more deeply into Use Cases (below) to spark a discussion on how companies can reduce their bottom line, improve their top line and enhance their offerings using ChatGPT.

ChatGPT Capabilities

From ChatGPT with the prompt “Please provide a paragraph describing the capabilities of ChatGPT”:

ChatGPT’s capabilities are truly remarkable. It possesses a vast knowledge base, drawing upon a wide range of topics and domains. It can answer questions, provide explanations, and even generate creative content such as blog posts, articles, and product descriptions. ChatGPT can understand context, maintain conversational coherence, and adapt to different conversational styles, making interactions feel more natural and dynamic.

.. I could barely have described it better myself. The proof is in the Prompt. Here are a few things I’ve asked ChatGPT prior to, and when researching this article .. links (provided by ChatGPT) for each prompt (try these at home!) :

And last: “Write a blog post about ChatGPT with the following section headings: ChatGPT Overview, ChatGPT Business Benefits, ChatGPT Capabilities, ChatGPT Use Cases, ChatGPT Providers, ChatGPT Audiences, Conclusion. Use the context of each section for section content and write at least two paragraphs underneath each section heading.“. This prompt provided the basis for this article. Very, very fun stuff .. again, advancing me into an editor role, versus a writer.

Note the value of specificity, including number of paragraphs, output formatting (tables or step-by-step) and so on.

Nothing formal herein .. just hoping to give you a taste. I’ll release a number of specific use-case articles as we go.

ChatGPT Use Cases

The public version of ChatGPT can satisfy a wide variety of use cases across various industries. Please see my examples, above for general usage. 

For specific company use, i.e., tailored technical support or company-specific processes, ChatGPT will need to be trained on the company background data. Once trained, ChatGPT enables application across numerous use cases.

  • Customer support: answer frequently asked questions, troubleshoot common issues and guide users through self-service processes.
  • Virtual assistant: common tasks like scheduling appointments, making reservations or offering personalized recommendations.
  • Language translation and content creation across internal and external domains.
  • E-Commerce: Act as a virtual sales assistant, guiding customers through their purchasing journey, answering product-related queries, and offering personalized recommendations. With training and connections to E-Commerce systems, the model can understand customer preferences and historical data, enhancing the shopping experience and driving sales.
  • Healthcare: Assist medical professionals with information on symptoms, suggesting potential diagnoses and offering treatment guidelines. Depending on training, It can act as a reliable source of medical knowledge, supporting doctors and nurses in their decision-making processes.
  • Mental health: Engage in empathetic conversations, providing a sense of companionship and offering resources for self-care.

This automation can help companies to handle a larger volume of inquiries efficiently. The instant responses will reduce customer wait times and enhance overall satisfaction.

ChatGPT Providers

Several providers have already integrated ChatGPT into their platforms, making the technology readily accessible to businesses and developers. OpenAI offers an API that allows developers to build their applications and leverage the power of ChatGPT. The API provides easy-to-use integration options that enable businesses to integrate conversational capabilities quickly and seamlessly.

I typically provide a list of partners in this section, but the market is moving so rapidly, I will defer this to a later post. In the interim, I found a very useful article on CRN: 8 Partners Weigh In On The ChatGPT, GPT Generative AI Hype. Published in February 2023, it provides a pragmatic view of various partner use cases.

ChatGPT Audiences

In a word: diverse. Businesses of all sizes and domains can leverage ChatGPT to streamline operations, enhance customer experiences and gain a competitive edge. Individuals can benefit using it as a personal productivity tool, creative writing assistant or, a companion for learning and exploration.

Developers and researchers can utilize the ChatGPT API to build new applications, conduct experiments, and advance the field of Conversational AI.

I will cover specific audiences in future use-case articles.


ChatGPT represents a significant leap forward in Conversational AI, unlocking new possibilities for businesses, individuals and developers. Advanced capabilities, diverse use cases and availability through various providers make it a game-changer in the world of natural language processing. As ChatGPT continues to evolve and improve, we can expect even more exciting applications and opportunities to arise, shaping the future of communication and human-AI interaction.

By harnessing the power of ChatGPT, we embark on a journey of innovation, pushing the boundaries of what is possible and redefining the way we engage with technology.

Shout out to ChatGPT for this section.

5W – Edge Computing

Thank you for reading! Please see “Why 5W?”  for context, methodology and disclaimers.

Edge Computing Overview

Edge Computing (EC) is a distributed computing paradigm where highly-scalable and efficient computing resources are made available closer (physically or through optimized network enhancements) to an end user, providing a superior application experience. EC offloads processing that would otherwise make round trips to a primary datacenter / cloud resource, thereby reducing latency and improving application / workload performance. Applications that can benefit from Edge Computing include mobile, web or thick client (locally installed on workstation).

The concept of ‘edge’ (in earlier days was known as ‘content delivery network‘ (CDN) as early as the 1990s. Companies like Akamai recognized a business model in providing improved end-user performance by serving static binary assets (images, videos and files) from geographically-dispersed data centers, closer to the end user than the central data center. Content and website owners uploaded large (videos, binary / file-based content) and a plethora of smaller, oft-used images (icons and web page graphics) to these servers to help the end-user avoid the latency of downloading these assets from central servers. Before the cloud, these servers were originally positioned in major data centers in the cardinal regions (AM, APAC, EMEA), but soon expanded into even more geographically-dispersed edge sites to improve end-user performance.

As you may surmise, companies who deployed assets on CDNs demanded policy-based content management (availability, expiry, etc.), unified upload / addressing for application access and consumption (storage, bandwidth) cost optimization from the CDN vendors. The winners in this early space sorted this through lookups, automation and dynamic addressing, methods deployed to this day.

Also to be expected, functional capability requirements evolved well beyond managing static content to include distributed interim storage, processing and expanded integration capabilities to third-party systems from the decentralized site, hence EC emerged. Early EC implementations were IoT-focused, especially for location-bound services that required increased computing performance to manage the output from sensors, machines and other monitorable / controllable assets.

The EC use case landscape is quite broad. Early deployments supported near-line collection and processing, enhancing data collected from IoT devices. These data were aggregated and correlated to provide a broader picture of the captured data. Next-stage deployments required highly-customized efforts by offering owners (i.e., a lot of code) to integrate these data. As with other emerging technologies, vendors stepped into the gap, providing platforms that reduce the level of effort (and code) enabling offering owners to engage in the new paradigm. Please see some of these in ‘Technology Providers’, below.

EC can be part of, and benefit from, a robust SD-WAN implementation, where devices, on-premises assets and cloud resource connections are managed and optimized centrally through policy. Most importantly, the benefits of an Edge Computing implementation can be measured by improved end-user / customer experience (CXM).

Edge Computing Business Benefits

Before modern browser-based and mobile-enabled capabilities, many applications were delivered to users in a client-server model, leveraging fast bandwidth and the computing capabilities of a local PC to do last-moment processing, dynamic presentation (sorting, graphics generation, etc.), in addition to relying on local temporary storage.

These applications were typically deployed in on-premises environments and connected to the central application server via a Local Area Network (LAN). Application developers / product owners relied on local PC capabilities to enhance the end-user experience for improved data navigation and management. When applications moved to browser-based implementation (with no access to local system resources), extended to mobile devices (multiple operating systems, introducing separate mobile-only code lines) or engaged with ‘dumb’ devices (devices lacking local processing, like sensors or cameras) the need for data aggregation and processing shifted back to the server. This introduced latency as entire data sets had to be transported over a slower connection for heretofore simple operations like sorting or graphics manipulation. As you may surmise, user experience suffered and bandwidth costs increased.

EC enables many of the same types of user experience enhancements through pre-processing content to thin-client implementations (web browsers, mobile devices, thin PCs and embedded endpoints), all without the need to write native client software for each of these devices. EC processing enhancements and close proximity avoid round trips to the central application server, leveraging capacity much closer to the end user, reducing latency and improving functionality. Further, EC enables call-outs to external services without the need to route them through the central application server, enabling application owners to leverage external services far more efficiently.

An EC DIY effort isn’t as easy or as seamless as an organization might hope. Establishing an edge infrastructure is beyond the typical product organization as it requires securing computing capacity close to your end users. Modern cloud vendors have enabled this capability by offering remote capacity in a pay-as-you-go model (please see ‘Technology Providers’, below). The short bit: aligning with an Edge provider with a platform is a far safer path.

Companies with existing applications encountered challenges getting to the edge as well, as, in short, many older applications were built with a single source server in mind. Companies discovered that off-loading tasks to remote computing capacity required refactoring application code or extra infrastructure into the new paradigm. While significant value can be achieved from this effort, companies had to balance the value against the investment. Again, modern cloud vendors and direct-to-edge platforms streamlined prompting application owners to review their existing applications to make them more edge-friendly / cloud-native applications.

EC is still early enough that many clear standards and verified strategies have yet to emerge. At a high level, there are some (emergent and hyper-simplified) EC offering methodologies:

  • Edge Capacity: IaaS-like computing resources enhanced with the means to perform automated deployments. Code must be written to be deployed across central and Edge servers, as with a distributed application.
  • Edge Platform: A PaaS-like platform that reduces manual deployments and code refactoring by enabling developers to ‘write to the platform’. This makes deployments simpler, but requires developers to refactor their code to Edge-Native standards.
  • Microservices: This option typically requires a significant re-write of application code, including provisioning services that enable standardized access to back-end resources. This is not for the faint of heart, nor those who do not have access to significantly-capable technical resources within their organization.

The first enables lift-and-shift code deployments, but at the cost of increased, remote management efforts. The second provides a far more robust and scalable implementation, but potentially creates vendor lock-in for the end customer. The third requires a code rewrite, all the way from the UI to the backend services. Note that in practice, an implementation may include any of these three, all combined into the final product.

As of this writing, there is a notable lack of codified EC standards and practices, with companies deploying workarounds to accommodate dated application standards and ‘not-quite-right’ edge toolsets. EC concepts are solid .. expect other paradigms to emerge as EC matures. The larger technology companies are the most mature, most notably, Akamai, IBM and Amazon.

Edge Computing Capabilities

The EC Platform paradigm solves significant application operability and performance use cases by enabling offering owners to get computing power closer to the end user. This is especially important when aiming to provide a thick-client user experience to cloud-hosted applications or aggregate and process data from thousands of IoT devices. While EC deployments will reduce latency, they will introduce levels of complexity in application design. As yet early, capable EC offerings may include:

  • EC as a Service: the edge platform is offered via provider-owned and operated assets, requiring little to no edge infrastructure on the part of the customer. This can be IaaS or PaaS. If the latter, will likely have one or more software platform components to which the application owner must comply.
  • Hardware Abstraction and Vendor-Independent Architectures: enables ‘Write Once / Deploy Broadly’ capabilities for developers to write code to a platform that can be deployed through automation, governed by policy.
  • Cloud Independence: EC intermediary systems can provide an abstraction layer to work with multiple clouds simultaneously or switch between clouds if  business needs / opportunities warrant.

Given the diversity of platforms and to-be-defined Edge standards, ISVs and SIs are filling the gap more so than Enterprises .. in short, organizations don’t really want to ‘roll their own’. This will shift as Edge-Native development paradigms become the norm for various application patterns. Open-Source platforms are clearly ahead of Edge development, albeit in a less-cohesive fashion. At the least, Edge-interested companies can cobble together an implementation from an impressive set of tools that will reduce their overall code and deployment challenges.

When defining EC capabilities, certain realities will come into play that will drive vendor selection and application considerations for organizations. In no particular order, these may include:

  • n-layer / n-tier, rather than flat, application architectures will lend themselves well to EC, especially if some of the layers / tiers are already defined as services-oriented implementations.
  • Services-oriented architectures (alluded to, above) enable broad application distribution, whereby services can be located and referenced to avoid duplication of code, capacity and effort.
  • Microservices architectures with policy-based deployment and connectivity models.
  • Configurable Process Orchestration.
  • Dynamic workload placement agility.
  • Aggregation and processing layers placed closer to data collection assets creating simplified inline real-time feedback to local monitoring assets.
  • Centralized processing tiers aggregating content for historical reporting.
  • Always-available connectivity, including 5G networks to ensure data can flow between tiers.

EC makes it possible to collect, process, augment and deliver data and content to end users. Besides improved user experience, EC enables thousands of real-time use cases that were simply infeasible before. Please see Use Cases below for examples of use cases that can benefit from EC.

Edge Computing Use Cases

EC lends itself to a wide variety of use cases, typically described as stories when engaging prospects. A few described below for reference.

Mapping and Directions:

  • An end user makes a request from a mapping application to obtain directions to their destination.
  • The request is authenticated by the main site, providing a processing token and redirection to the nearest edge site.
  • The token validates the request between the user device and the edge site and allows access.
  • The edge site processes the request independently, adding additional (and hyper-local) ephemeral assets like maps, weather, specific driving directions and more, sending the response to the mobile device.
  • The edge site performs lazy updates to the main site to update user history while the trip is in progress.
  • The end user receives the directions from the edge site, monitoring their progress locally via their mobile device.
  • While navigating, the mobile application updates the edge site and receives localized updates on traffic, weather or other local travel factors.
  • The user arrives at their destination and the edge site lazy updates user history on the main site.

To summarize: the main site offloaded parts of the services delivery to the edge site based on user location. The edge site performed localized outreach to manage changing conditions, informing the end user. The edge site updated the main site in the background during, finalizing user history at the end of the trip.

Image Acquisition / Manipulation  for Social Media upload:

  • An end user snaps a picture on their mobile device with the intent to upload it to their favorite social media site.
  • The request is authenticated by the main site, providing a token and redirection to the nearest edge site. The token validates the request between the user device and the edge site and allows access.
  • The mobile device opens the raw image file in the social media application, which is uploaded to the edge site. The main site is notified of the activity in the background, however the raw image is not uploaded to the main site just yet.
  • The user edits the image in the social media application (cropping, filters, enhancements, etc.). The mobile application prepares to send the delta of these changes (not the image file itself) to the edge site.
  • The user confirms their changes and when satisfied, commits them on the mobile device.
  • The edge site dynamically allocates computing capacity to manipulate the image to user specifications.
  • The edge site uses computing capacity to finalize the image, notifying the user when complete.
  • The edge site lazy writes the final version to the central server for permanent storage.

The main site offloaded processor-intensive image manipulation tasks to the edge site. Note the image was only uploaded once, and only to the edge site. Only after the end user approved changes did the final optimized image be uploaded to the main site for permanent storage.

Other use cases can be discussed:

  • Location-based Interactive Gaming like Ingress and Pokemon Go.
  • TMS: Vehicle Monitoring and Management through processing telematics. 5G enablement opportunity.
  • Manufacturing: ‘Smarter’ Sensors for Monitoring and Management.
  • “Smart Buildings” Monitoring and Management through embedded systems.

EC use cases number in the thousands. No customer buys ‘Edge Computing’ by itself .. they will have at least one (and likely several) use case goals in mind. It is the seller / SME task to understand the target use case proposals to the point where we can suggest appropriate solutions from our client offerings. Note that while adopting a platform can satisfy a priority use case, the same platform can be used for additional use cases to achieve more ROI from an end-customer investment.

Edge Computing Providers

As use cases vary far and wide, these are all ‘some assembly required’ .. where these companies provide the hardware and / or software platforms requiring connecting and orchestrating systems and services. It is highly unlikely widely-accepted standards will emerge across all platforms. 

AkamaiEdge Computing PlatformA mature Edge platform with server-less code execution, deployed on the Akamai global CDN network. “Edge Computing” is the new Akamai marketing tagline. Offers a free trial.
IoT GreenGrass
A feature of Amazon CloudFront, Lambda enables serverless code execution closer to the end user. On-demand capacity, AWS does not charge the customer when the code is not running.   IoT-specific use cases for connectivity and management.
CiscoEdge Computing SolutionsRouter-reliant with a small footprint.
Dell EMCProject Frontier Hardware-centric offering. VMware is a partner. 
Ericcson Edge Computing Telecom-centric EC platform. 
HPEEdgeline Converged Edge Systems
HPE Greenlake Edge
Hardware-centric offering.      Includes locally-deployed resources on a PAYG basis.   Edge Computing Resource Library.
IBMCloud at the Edge A bit of marketing oatmeal .. repurposing a combination of IBM Cloud Services and Middleware. Despite the marketing goo, IBM can definitely do Edge. 
IntelEdge Technology Includes Intel Market-Ready Solutions, pre-built IoT kits with Edge capabilities. 
MicrosoftAzure IoT Edge    Azure Stack EdgeA fully-managed service built on Azure IoT Hub.    Locally-deployed Azure component, extending to the Azure cloud.   Article: What is Edge Computing
openstackopenstack Edge ComputingOwned by IBM.
StackPathBuild your EdgeSecure Edge Platform for Developers, which enables the deployment of Edge-Distributed applications.

ED: As Article Publish dates are frozen in time, it is quite possible reviewed vendors and their capabilities may have advanced beyond those presented herein. Please accept my apologies for my shortcomings. A note to vendors: please reach out to advise your current offering capabilities and I will update.

Edge Computing Audiences

Most IT audiences will recognize Edge by name .. but all will have different definitions and a wide variety of understanding and expectations for Edge use in their organization. Ditto for Executive audiences. The majority of these audiences will need to be engaged through education on the performance and cost savings aspects of EC, tailored to their role in an organization. IT can be engaged through potential cost savings where an offering can be decentralized, shifting processing to remote locations, saving processing and bandwidth.

Surprisingly, Product Owners (POs), who are typically hungry for new features to improve their products are not seen as primary audiences for EC as of yet .. the PO audience must also be educated, relying on ‘what if’ scenarios and stories that will improve their offering. Given virtually infinite use cases, engaging POs through discovery is an important part of an engagement. A seller can approach prospective POs by describing the value of EC to add new features and enhance performance to end-customer audiences. This will require sellers to take a close look at the company offering, understanding the use cases the offering enables and extrapolating offering enhancements they can present to the PO. Not all ideas will land with POs .. this engagement will require thick-skinned ‘idea hamsters‘ working with outreach agents to ensure a credible impression in an initial contact.

EC is not a technical sale at the outset. It is creative and educational, relying on sellers identifying, researching and offering use cases that align to prospect roles within the target organization.

A company should consider EC for:

  • Adding new features to their offering that can be optimized via the end-user location.
  • Enhancing the performance of their offering.
  • Cost savings through application optimization (smaller centralized footprint, reduced bandwidth, etc.).
  • Improving end-customer experience with new features and better performance.
  • Localizing customer experiences.

A seller needs the ability to recognize, expand and document end-customer use cases / need states that enable them to secure a solid prospect.

An EC sale will cross multiple audiences, engaging PO, IT, Operations, Developers and Executive audiences.


Edge Computing is a storytelling campaign. It may not begin with a prospect who has an enhancement story already in mind. As noted above, no company will buy ‘edge’ .. they will consider new features, better customer experience, faster performance, application stability, cost savings and so on. Edge Computing is a paradigm shift .. engagements will involve several technical and business audiences, as well as reaching from developer audiences to the executive suite of an organization. Product Owners and Developers will present as useful influencers, but the ultimate decisions must be recognized across the organization.

5W – Business Support Services (BSS)

Thank you for reading! Please see “Why 5W?”  for context, methodology and disclaimers.

BSS Overview

In a rapidly-evolving business landscape, businesses require support services to keep operations running smoothly. The Business Support Services (BSS) domain consists of vendors who provide Line of Business (LOB) packaged services to businesses, integrated through services to provide a common data infrastructure. This bears some explanation, as the definition above also applies to Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems .. the previous generation of Business Support Systems.

By contrast, modern SaaS-based ERP and BSS systems are significantly easier to deploy, enable mobile functions out-of-the-box and are better-received by end users. Through services-based API integration, these systems don’t require the rip-and-replace of any incumbent systems. My purpose for drawing this correlation is to point out that ERP and BSS essentially perform the same functions in an end-customer environment. However, legacy ERP is monolithic and tightly-connected to captive modules, whereas BSS achieves the same functionality through built-in integration, interoperability and mobile capabilities.

BSSs encompass a wide range of essential services, from accounting and bookkeeping to administrative tasks such as data collection, customer service and human resources management. By outsourcing these tasks to systems, businesses can focus on their core competencies and achieve growth and success.

Business Benefits

One of the significant benefits of leveraging BSS is the cost-effectiveness. Small and medium-sized enterprises often lack the resources to hire full-time employees for various roles, such as accounting and IT support. Outsourcing these tasks to BSS providers saves these businesses significant amount of money, where they will pay for only the services they require and reduce the need for dedicated internal support. The best part: BSS can enable businesses to access expertise and technology outside their core competencies, allowing them to do what they do best without worrying about LOB system overhead.

The segment BSS serves is full of business customers with a lot of LOB needs, including financial (AR / AP / Payroll), E-Commerce (OM / WM / Fulfillment), HCM (recruiting / talent management / project time tracking), Sales (CRM / MAP) and many more. Businesses can select from well-enabled, self-service vendors who have massive feature / benefit overlap, but few differentiators. The market is broad and confusing, but businesses need to explore it. Vital LOB functions in these spaces have their own challenges:

  • Financial processes demand automation and errors can be expensive.
  • Payroll rules are constantly changing, and businesses need to keep up to avoid incurring fines for non-compliance.
  • Consumer payment functions require PCI compliance and the fulfillment paradigm is complex.
  • HCM is a set of complex and manual processes for companies .. not without potential legal exposure.
  • CRM and MAP systems are typically ad-hoc and disconnected in the SMB space.

BSSs can formalize manual processes, and where incumbent systems exist, extend these functionalities through interoperability and integration.

BSS Capabilities

BSSs encompass all of the functions SMBs and MMEs require .. an easy target, as most of these functions are standard business processes, required by all businesses in most any space. As noted above, these include a wide variety of ‘standard’ business systems in the accounting realm, as well as extending into systems that a BSS customer may be performing manually, like recruiting, on-boarding, off-boarding, payroll .. as well as end customer-facing functions like E-Commerce, Marketing Automation (MAP) and so on.

BSS vendors bring all the benefits of SaaS right out of the box: modern architectures with built-in integration, SLA-based uptime, pay-as-you-go pricing, mobile device access and more. Services offerings, typically delivered by partners enhances the implementation experience and ensures businesses are functional in short order with predictable cost.

BSS Use Cases

The low-hanging fruit is payroll .. most all the vendors in the space offer it as table stakes. From there, other offerings emerge as vendors leverage their respective LOB experience to create a larger portfolio. As the space is broad and deep, please refer to ‘Companies in the Field’, below, for expansion on vendors and the services they support. Other BSS use case offerings include:

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) System:

  • Manages customer interactions and lead tracking.
  • Generates activity reports, sales reports and forecasts.
  • Monitors / Manages customer service and support requests.
  • Analyzes customer behavior and preferences.
  • Manages customer segmentation and activities for marketing campaigns.

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System:

  • Integrates and automates core business processes like finance, inventory, procurement, order management, fulfillment and more.
  • Manages and tracks inventories.
  • Streamlines order processing and fulfillment.
  • Generates financial statements and reports.
  • Facilitates resource planning and allocation.

Human Resources Information System (HRIS) / Human Capital Management (HCM):

  • Manages employee records, including personal information, job history and performance evaluations.
  • Tracks employee time and attendance.
  • Administers payroll and benefits.
  • Manages recruitment and onboarding processes.
  • Conducts performance management and training.

Supply Chain Management (SCM) System:

  • Tracks inventory levels and optimizes stock levels.
  • Manages supplier relationships and procurement processes.
  • Plans and optimizes transportation and logistics.
  • Integrates with order processing and fulfillment.
  • Analyzes supply chain performance and identifies bottlenecks.

Financial Management System (FMS):

  • Manages financial transactions and accounts payable / receivable.
  • Generates invoices and tracks payments.
  • Creates and manages budgets.
  • Conducts financial forecasting and analysis functions.
  • Ensures regulatory compliance and generating financial reports.

Project Management System:

  • Create and manage project schedules and timelines.
  • Assign tasks and track progress.
  • Facilitate collaboration and communication across team members and connected teams.
  • Manage project resources and budgets.
  • Monitor and evaluate project performance.

IT Service Management (ITSM) System:

  • Manage IT service requests and incidents.
  • Track and resolve technical issues and outages.
  • Manage software and hardware assets.
  • Implement change management processes.
  • Monitor and analyze IT service performance.

Collaboration and Unified Communication Systems (UCaaS):

  • Facilitate team collaboration and communications.
  • Share documents and files in real-time.
  • Enable virtual meetings and video conferencing.
  • Manage and assign tasks.
  • Facilitate internal and external communication.

These are just a few examples of the various BSSs in the marketplace. Specific use cases will vary depending on the needs of the organization and any incumbent systems / processes to augment or replace.

The more an organization can integrate BSSs with other systems, the better the opportunity for reliable data collection. Quality, correlated data collections provide the means for an organization to significantly improve Business Intelligence and Data Governance efforts. These are compelling bonus opportunities to consider when assessing the costs and benefit to engage in a BSS implementation.

BSS Providers

Follows a list of BSS vendors with use case, vertical and media mapping. It is by no means complete, but provides offerings to support SMB / MMB space. The BSS story can be used as a vendor entry point for any of the underlying use cases, leading to BSS implementations.

Last, note that several of the offerings below are labelled ‘ERP’ .. but the differentiation from BSS functions (as described above) is largely semantic.

Vendor / OfferingDeploymentUse Cases / ModulesNotes
AS Systems (Atlas)On-PremisesPlanning and Management of Production
Finance and Accounting
Purchasing and Supply Planning
Sales and Client Requests
Project Management
Management of Lease Contracts
Managing Customer Relations
Warehouse Management
Service Module
Logistic Module
E-commerce B2B
Payroll and Personnel Management
Business Analysis
Мobile Commerce
Business Cloud EssentialsSaaSManufacturing
Financial Management
People Management
Spend Management
Field Services Management
Offers Services beyond BSS / ERP solutions.
Epicor KineticSaaSEpicor Prophet 21 (SCM)
Epicor BisTrack (MRP)
Epicor Eagle (RMS)
Epicor Propello (RMS)
Intuit – QuickBooksSaaSSeveral Use Cases for SMBsActively pursuing sole proprietors with radio and ads. Offers a trial.
MIE SolutionsSaaSMIE Trak Pro
Sales Orders
Work Orders
MIE Trak Pro
MIE Mobile Warehousing
MRP Focus. Case Studies
MondaySaaSProject Management
Creative Agencies
Marketing & PR
Client Management
Product Management
Agile Development
Sales and Business Development
Orders and Production
HR and Recruitment
Team Management
Focus on scheduling and collaboration.   Actively pursuing SMBs with TV ads.
Financial Management
Global Business Management
SuitePeople Human Resource Management System (HRMS)
NetSuite Professional Services Automation (PSA)
Suite Success
The most extensive (and priciest) suite of BSSs. Owned by Oracle.   Actively pursuing SMBs with radio and TV ads.
OdooSaaS On-PremisesCRM
POS and Sales
Project Engagement
Timesheet and Helpdesk
MRP and Purchase
Website and E-Commerce
Invoicing and Accounting
Email Marketing and MAP
Developer Tools
Open-source ERP. Start for free.
OnCloudERPSaaSApplication Modules
HR / Payroll (soon)
Assets (soon)
Project (soon)
CRM (soon)
Start for Free (pricing page)  
OnTaskSaaSDocument Workflow
Sales Automation
HR Automation
Operations Automation
Oracle ERP CloudUnknownUnknownWhile this site still exists (redirected to a demo request page), OEC may be deprecated in favor of the NetSuite acquisition.
Paycom.comSaaSTalent Acquisition
Talent Management
HR Management
Time and Labor Management
How Paycom Plans to Take Over the Payroll Software Industry   Actively pursuing SMBs with TV ads.
Sage Business CloudSaaSSage 50Cloud Accounting
Sage Business Cloud Accounting (invoicing) Sage Payment Processing
Sage Intaact (midsize)
Favors MME, but SMB for financial.   Some brand confusion between SBC and other Sage kits.
SAP Business By DesignSaaSSAP Business By Design Features:
Project Management
ScoroSaaSFeatures include:
Project Management
Work Scheduling and Tracking
Financial Management
Sales / CRM
Reporting and Dashboards Integrations through Zapier via the Scoro Marketplace
Solid integration and mobile stories.
SurePayrollSaaSIndustry-Built ERP / MRP system, including Automotive Electronics Food and Beverage Industrial Machinery Consumer Goods Fabricated Metals Packaging Plastics and Rubber Medical DevicesOwned by Paychex.   Actively pursuing SMBs with TV ads.
SYSPROSaaS On-PremisesVery broad suite: Business Software Business Digitalization Business Functions (BSS) Manufacturing TypesIndustry-Built ERP / MRP system, including:
Food and Beverage
Industrial Machinery
Consumer Goods
Fabricated Metals
Packaging Plastics
Rubber Medical Devices
WorkdaySaaSFinancial Management
Professional Services Automation
Cloud / Platform
Zoho OneSaaSWorkplace (office suite)
IT Management
People Plus (HCM)
CRM Plus
Solid Integration story .. lots of smaller applications; some standalone, others as integration kits.

ED: As Article Publish dates are frozen in time, it is quite possible reviewed vendors and their capabilities may have advanced beyond those presented herein. Please accept my apologies for my shortcomings. A note to vendors: please reach out to update your current offering capabilities and I will update.

BSS Audiences

A BSS implementation is not industry-specific. Virtually every industry need this toolset. Some highlights:

 Retail and E-commerce:

  • Manage inventory, track sales and streamline order processing and fulfillment.
  • Facilitate customer relationship management, marketing campaigns and loyalty programs.

Manufacturing and Supply Chain:

  • Track and optimize production planning, inventory management and procurement processes.
  • Improve supply chain visibility, streamline logistics and enable effective supplier management.


  • Appointment scheduling, staff scheduling and electronic health records (EHR) management.
  • Billing and insurance claims processing as well as supporting inventory and supply chain management.


  • Customer relationship management for service providers.
  • Billing and invoicing, service provisioning and network performance monitoring.

Professional Services:

  • Project management, time tracking and resource allocation in consulting firms, law firms, and other professional service organizations.
  • Client billing and contract management.


  • Student enrollment and registration, academic records management and grading.
  • Course scheduling, resource allocation and learning management systems.

Transportation and Logistics:

  • Optimize route planning, fleet management and shipment tracking.
  • Warehouse management, inventory control and transportation logistics.

These are just a few examples of industries that can benefit from implementing BSS. The specific needs and requirements may vary within each industry, but the underlying goal is to streamline operations, improve customer satisfaction and improve the bottom line.

BSS implementations will benefit for a wide range of audiences within a business organization. Some key audiences that can consider the value:

Executive Leadership:

  • Access to accurate and real-time data for making strategic decisions.
  • Insights into the organization’s performance, financial health and market trends.

Operations and Business Managers:

  • Streamline and automate core business processes.
  • Enhance efficiency, reduce manual work and improve process visibility, allowing managers to optimize resource allocation, monitor performance, and drive operational excellence.

Sales and Marketing Teams:

  • Track and manage customer interactions, leads and measure campaign effectiveness.
  • Provide a centralized customer database, sales forecasting tools, and marketing analytics, empowering teams to enhance customer engagement, improve conversions, and drive revenue growth.

Customer Service and Support:

  • Manage and track customer inquiries, complaints and service requests.
  • Access to customer activity, ticketing systems and facilitate knowledge sharing to improve response times and better issue resolution.

Human Resources:

  • Manage employee records, automate HR processes and improve workforce management.
  • Streamline recruitment, onboarding, time and attendance tracking, payroll management, performance evaluations  and training, all leading to increased efficiency and employee satisfaction.

Finance and Accounting:

  • Streamline financial operations, manage accounts payable / receivable and generate accurate financial reports.
  • Automate invoicing, payment tracking, budgeting, expense management and regulatory compliance, thus improving financial visibility, accuracy and control.

IT Departments:

  • Provide self-service IT capabilities, manage IT service requests, incidents and assets.
  • Automate ticketing, asset tracking, change management, performance monitoring to improve IT services.

Specific audiences may vary depending on the organization’s structure, industry, and specific business needs.


Whether CRM, ERP, HRIS, OM, MAP, EC, WM, FM, SCM .. or a variety of other BSS alphabet soup, an appropriate BSS implementation will result in improved processes, error reduction and smoother operations. BSS plays a crucial role in enabling businesses to thrive and adapt in today’s competitive and dynamic business environment.

5W – Quote-to-Cash (QTC)

Thank you for reading! Please see “Why 5W?”  for context, methodology and disclaimers.

Quote to Cash Overview

The Quote-to-Cash process (also known as Q2C or QTC, the latter I am using as the acronym in this article) is a set of business processes that includes product / offering selecting, quoting, pricing, up-sell, contracting, invoicing, integration with payment systems, contract renewal and more. We should all recognize that reducing friction after the sale is a critical component to engaging delivery, achieving revenue targets and getting paid. In an ideal world, QTC would be automated and heavily integrated with all component systems and dependent systems.

Given the importance of streamlining revenue-associated business processes, it is surprising to note that many companies have not effectively automated or standardized their QTC processes. While some businesses have standardized some of them .. others have selected or inherited multiple SaaS-based systems over time, and still others rely on separate processes. However, there is a significant lack of end-to-end integration for QTC in most businesses.

You might also have heard of Order to Cash (OTC). While the terms may be used interchangeably, OTC and QTC are different:

  • OTC likely does not include configuration capabilities for the product / offering, like setting the price, creating a quote, or any bits associated with Contracts and Contract Renewal. OTC tends to be at the order level, where these items are simple (quantity, color, etc.), or already identified.
  • QTC encompasses a much larger set of business processes and as noted above, may well include OTC bits for scoping, pricing, logistics and delivery.

An effective QTC implementation will be tightly bound with company Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Configure Price Quote (CPQ), inventory and Point of Sale (POS) Systems for brick-and-mortar establishments. If the organization transacts business online, an E-Commerce System acts as POS, and a Customer Experience Management (CXM) System can provide significant Business Intelligence (BI) value by tracking customer interactions on the site, capturing buying patterns and interest in other products for future cross-sell / up-sell outreach.

If the organization lacks native (or effective) integration across systems, it can consider deploying Robotic Process Automation (RPA) as an effective stopgap to connect other systems to a QTC system while integrations are built.

QTC Business Benefits

QTC falls on the right-hand side of a Supply Chain Management (SCM) diagram, where an end customer has selected / described a finished product / offering and is entering purchase / contract / services negotiations. Note that in a retail E-Commerce transaction, there is typically little complexity on this: select the item, customize, click the quantity, enter payment and shipping information and the product shows up. For more complex offerings, scoping, customization, integration with external systems, current-customer discounts and much more will require much more detail when finalizing an purchase.

Consider QTC enabling / automating a complex set of transactional steps, including:

ActionActorNotes / Opportunities
Product / Offering SelectionBuyerGuided by Seller / Automation
Configuration / ScopingBuyer / SellerGuided by Seller / Automation
Configure Product / Offering / Services Price Quote (CPQ)SellerSeller Document Workflow
Approve / Reject CPQSeller ManagementIterative; should be automated
Create ContractSellerSeller Document Workflow
Provide Approved Quote and Contract to CustomerSellerSeller Document Workflow
Negotiate ContractBuyer / SellerIterative; requires multiple entities.
Sign ContractBuyer / SellerLogistics: ‘wet’ versus digital.
Check Customer CreditSellerExternal System
Place OrderSellerSeller Internal System
Create InvoiceSellerSeller Internal System
Send InvoiceSellerSeller Internal System
Pay InvoiceBuyerBuyer Internal System
Revenue RecognitionSellerSeller Internal System
Contract RenewalBuyer / SellerTypically outside the QTC scope.

This list is not complete and will vary widely across companies.

ED: As Article Publish dates are frozen in time, it is quite possible reviewed vendors and their capabilities may have advanced beyond those presented herein. Please accept my apologies for my shortcomings. A note to vendors: please reach out to advise your current offering capabilities and I will update.

QTC Capabilities

Many E-Commerce transactions automate the early stages of this (Product / Offering / Configuration / Scoping, some quoting), but as the bulk of these processes involve disparate systems (including internal systems like Contracting, Financial and Warehouse Management), E-Commerce can (and should) only go so far in the overall QTC scope.

QTC transactional steps touch multiple systems in the Seller environment:

  • Order Management
  • Configuration Management
  • Quoting (CPQ) Management
  • Contract Lifecycle Management (CLM)
  • Credit Management
  • Warehouse Management (WM)
  • Accounts Receivable (AR)
  • Payment Management.

.. and so on. Automation is the first step, but integration is the real key to accelerating the entire scope of QTC to business benefit.

The QTC process is comprised of discrete steps, a subset of which are described above. A QTC system that integrates, automates and governs transactions, including policy-based logic, approval routing, notifications, and providing an all-up process view is a major benefit to an end customer. A quote from the Aberdeen Group (provided by BlackCurve) cites QTC ROI is significant, resulting in:

  • 105% larger deal sizes.
  • 49% higher proposal volume
  • 28% shorter sales cycle
  • 26% more sales representatives meeting their targets
  • 17% higher conversation rate

These benefits are largely due to streamlined, interconnected and error-free automated processes. Please note the numbers above were extracted from QTC systems across multiple sales organizations and across all industries. End customers should take a serious look at QTC to achieve this kind of reporting alone .. most organizations can search across systems to validate these findings in their present environment.

Addressing the automation and interconnectivity use cases in the ‘Business Challenges’ section above will aid in the selection of a QTC offering, as each represents a checklist item to be confirmed in an end-customer environment during discovery.

Organizations with robust Supply Chain Management systems will recognize the opportunity to improve in-chain payment processes by expanding the scope of the QTC process to include Trading Partners for whom they are a Provider or a Seller.

QTC Use Cases

QTC is effectively its own use case, speeding the process between initiating, configuring, pricing and closing on a sale to receive revenue. Granted, you’ll note a lot of complexity across a large number of systems that describe a complete solution.

QTC Providers

The major ERP, CRM and SCM players have a QTC offering or integration / implementation:

CompanyFeatures / Notes
AcceLIMPrimarily visibility and integration tools.
AccumaticaERP with CPQ and QTC integration.
ApttusCPQ, contract management, E-Commerce and revenue management. AI- / ML-enabled.
Callidus SoftwareCloud-based sales, marketing and customer experience. SaaS-based, with flexible (subscription, services and licensing) pricing options. Owned by SAP.
CapgeminiCPQ and Contract Lifecycle Management (CLM) with QTC integration.
Cincom SystemsCPQ with QTC integration.
CloudSenseCPQ, OM, CLM and E-Commerce built atop Salesforce.
ConnectWiseCPQ, RPA and QTC integration.
DataServPrimarily FPA with QTC integration.
DocusignThe DocuSign Agreement Cloud is a significant expansion to their online document management capabilities, which now include CLM.
experlogixCPQ and OM for Salesforce and Microsoft Dynamics CRM.
FPXExperience Management solutions for Enterprises, providing CPQ for Sellers and Buyers.
KBMaxCPQ with Salesforce integration (Epicor).
OracleThe Oracle CPQ Cloud is tightly integrated with its CXM suite.
SalesforceCRM provider. Acquired SteelBrick in 2015. SB built QTC as an SFDC application.

ED: As Article Publish dates are frozen in time, it is quite possible that reviewed vendors and their capabilities may have advanced beyond those presented herein. Please accept my apologies for my shortcomings. A note to vendors: please reach out to update your current offering capabilities and I will update.

QTC Audiences

A QTC engagement is unlikely to be greenfield, as some automation, on-premises or SaaS silos will likely exist. It will also cross multiple audiences within an organization, including:

  • IT
  • Contracting
  • Quoting
  • Finance (AR / AP)
  • E-Commerce Platform Owners
  • Logistics and Fulfillment Roles

.. and all the way to the executive suite.

A modern QTC offering should have no issues connecting with modern SaaS silos via API or RPA. This is a solid benefit to call out as end customers will be rip-and-replace averse when engaging with critical legal and financial systems. Initial engagement will include:

  • Discovery of the current order, fulfillment, payment systems, plus business workflows.
  • Capture integration points (by name and integration method).
  • Document the present workflow as part of solution planning.

Some reluctance will surface as many will cite some of their processing components are working well enough to suit their needs. This posture will manifest itself early in a conversation, especially among operators of ‘in the chain’ components. While a company-wide QTC effort will be driven from the top, there is still value in engaging with operational entities within an organization to ascertain process, performance and contract intelligence.

Common Customer Objections include:

  • QTC is expensive: Cost is relative, and like any investment in business technology, a customer must examine the ROI of the purchase against the potential value the technology and disciplined business processes will bring to the company. There are many SaaS-based QTC offerings with robust integration points offering process improvement without a rip-and-replace requirement.
  • QTC is complicated: The short version: it is. As QTC requires discipline both in process management and integration, suggesting a dedicated resource or a partner to assess and execute. QTC is connecting, configuring and NOT coding in over 75% of the use cases, and creates huge time savings when deployed. It is not all sunshine and roses .. if systems that cannot be integrated (siloed, lacking APIs or are paper-based) are in the process, you may not be able to eliminate some manual steps in the first iteration.
  • QTC is overkill: Many organizations may feel they’re too small or not complex enough for QTC. Tease this out in Discovery .. if the customer has a quoting and approval process, they will benefit from QTC capabilities.
  • We lack the bandwidth to deploy QTC: See ‘complicated’, above. There are companies who can assist with this.
  • We already have QTC: I appreciate it when an organization has an existing implementation as it results in a shorter education cycle and lets us engage more directly. Through Discovery, unpack the extent of their implementation, any components are getting old / need updating, or don’t play well (integration or reporting) with others. You may also be able to expose opportunities for QTC within their SCM implementation, as noted in ‘capabilities’, above.

Not an objection, but a QTC implementation isn’t typically do-it-yourself. Most organizations will recognize this, so it is important to have engaged Partner Sellers to provide Services in these engagements.


You may surmise QTC is a less common implementation in companies and not likely a greenfield solution. Companies will have manual or semi-automated processes, each with a process discipline. QTC is an enabling technology within E-Commerce, Logistics and Fulfillment platforms, so industry / vertical is less important than how the customer transacts business.

Some offerings are more end-to-end than others .. but note: as flexible Integration is a requirement for a QTC offering, an end customer can select and right-size a solution that has just the features they seek at a price point they can afford. Most of these are SaaS-based, allowing for a low barrier to customer entry and flexible entry / escape paths.

5W – Supply Chain Management (SCM)

Thank you for reading! Please see “Why 5W?”  for context, methodology and disclaimers.

Supply Chain Management Overview

The term Supply Chain describes the planning, sourcing, manufacturing, distribution, warehousing, order management and fulfillment of products / services from points of origin to delivery.

The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals defines Supply Chain Management (SCM) thusly:

Supply Chain Management encompasses the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing and procurement, conversion, and all logistics management activities. Importantly, it also includes coordination and collaboration with channel partners, which can be suppliers, intermediaries, third-party service providers, and customers. In essence, supply chain management integrates supply and demand management within and across companies. Supply Chain Management is an integrating function with primary responsibility for linking major business functions and business processes within and across companies into a cohesive and high-performing business model. It includes all of the logistics management activities noted above, as well as manufacturing operations, and it drives coordination of processes and activities with and across marketing, sales, product design, finance and information technology.

SCM software captures information flow about products, from raw materials through delivery in a digital format. SCM is a very common, yet very complex set of business processes that relies heavily on digital, physical system and human integration .. more so than most other organizational processes. SCM:

  • Requires complex digital and physical implementation, with myriad endpoints as it must manage aspects of the physical world in the form of raw materials, sources, inbound shipment logistics, manufacturing plants, assembly sites, warehouses, distribution centers, commerce / Commerce, fulfillment and so on.
  • Manages the people engaged with the Supply Chain, including source facility operators, distribution center operators, drivers, warehouse operators, forklift operators, manufacturing operators, assembly, kitting, pick-pack, fulfillment and shipping.
  • Provides alerting and reporting at all stages as materials are acquired, flow through the pipeline and finished products are shipped.

SCM connects multiple business processes enabled by modern technology. Managing the Supply Chain is essential to ensure the availability of materials, manufacturing, assembly, management and fulfillment of products to consumers. Modern Supply Chains are evolving to be more dynamic and data-driven, seen as a key competitive advantage for companies. This evolution impacts how efficiently and profitably companies can plan, source, make and deliver products to their customers. It’s not just inputs and outputs in motion .. SCM also manages and tracks inventory, costs and assets that contribute to overall efficiencies and profitability.

SCM Business Benefits

SCM has become increasingly important for businesses as it offers a range of benefits that can help companies to improve their operations, reduce costs and stay competitive in a rapidly changing market.

SCM provides businesses with real-time visibility into their supply chain operations. This allows companies to monitor everything from inventory levels and shipments, further helping to identify potential bottlenecks or delays. With this information, businesses can make informed decisions about their operations, quickly responding to changes in demand or supply chain disruptions. This visibility helps companies to optimize their inventory levels, reducing the need for excess stock and minimizing the risk of stockouts.

Process automation in SCM provides increased efficiency and productivity. SCM helps businesses to streamline their operations and reduce manual workloads, thus reducing errors and delays.

SCM enhances collaboration and communication between different stakeholders in the supply chain, such as suppliers, distributors and retailers. Sharing these data in real-time enables businesses to work together more effectively, identifying potential issues earlier and responding to changes more quickly. This leads to better relationships between suppliers and customers, and ultimately, better business outcomes.

Companies with robust SCM implementations enjoy a competitive advantage over those with manual processes. SCM allows faster response to changes in the market. The increased visibility and control over supply chain operations enables companies to be more agile and adaptable .. better positioned to capitalize on new opportunities. This is especially important in industries where competition is keen, and margins are thin.

SCM Capabilities

SCM can drive both direct business impact by reducing costs and improving the bottom line through operational efficiencies. It can also drive indirect business impacts in a variety of ways:

  • Improved access to information across the entire Supply Chain through integration and collaboration.
  • Simplified alerting and reporting through silo aggregation and automation.
  • Insights from AI and reporting using data that is available as close to real time as possible.
  • Increased agility in supplier interaction.
  • Data-driven forecasting.

To restate the obvious: a successful Supply Chain relies on high levels of system integration and appropriate levels of knowledge dissemination.

Note there’s a lot of interaction between Supply Chains and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, as many of the processes that serve the Supply Chain fall under the ERP bailiwick. Again, integration is key, versus adapting non-compatible ERP processes into SCM components. This is an ongoing discussion (and process improvement opportunity) with many companies, as ERP likely picks up the slack of many process operations prior to a company deploying SCM.

SCM Use Cases

SCM is effectively its own use case, purposefully serving the need for end-to-end movement of raw materials through finished product and into distribution. However, the deployments will vary widely and bear review. When working with prospects in an SCM engagement you should expect to find:

  • Companies with an integrated and automated Supply Chain, but lacking centralized monitoring, alerting and reporting.
  • Companies with mature manufacturing and logistics components, but falling short in integration.
  • Companies who recently went through an acquisition of a supplier, manufacturing or assembly facility.
  • Companies in the process of adding new, or removing old Trading Partners.
  • Companies with the need, but lacking a durable Supply Chain.

.. and every case in-between. SCM sales engagements will consist of Discovery and iterative discussions. Implementation will include a substantial Services component, as deep assessment is required to understand the breadth of the Supply chain (does it extend all the way to Warehousing, Order Management and Fulfillment?), where shortcomings in operations and integration exist, and which components of an SCM vendor will fulfill the requirements.

SCM Providers

All the major software providers claim some sort of SCM implementation .. some actually have one:

Coupa SoftwareBusiness Spend Management PlatformAppears to be SaaS-based (they’re cagey). Good coverage across Procurement, Invoicing, Expenses, Spend Analysis and Supplier Management. Light on manufacturing.
BaswareBusiness Spend Management PlatformPurchase to Pay, Expenses, Invoicing, OCR, Supplier Engagement, eMarketplace, ePayments.
HighJumpOmnichannel RetailWarehouse Management, ERP, Warehouse Automation, Logistics, Delivery, Transportation, QA, BI, offers cloud versions of WMS and TMS.
Descartes Systems GroupLogistics Technology PlatformCargo Security, Ocean Regulatory, Route Planning and Execution, Ecommerce, Freight Audit, Dock Scheduling, Transportation Planning and Execution.
EpicorBusiness ManagementMore of an ERP Play, but offers CMS, ECM, HCM, Logistics and Supply Chain Management that integration with ERP and other Epicor components.
Manhattan AssociatesManhattan ActiveIntegration, Inventory, Supply Chain, POS, OM, CXM, Inventory, Fulfillment, Transportation Management, Warehouse Management.
InforPlatform and CloudSuitePrimarily ERP. A number of industry-specific packaged like Automotive, Aerospace / Defense, Industrial Enterprise, Fashion, Healthcare, F&B. Includes Distribution and WMS, HCM and CRM.
BlueYonderSCMPlanning to Delivery, including full SCM capabilities from Manufacturing, Supply, WMS, OMS, Channel, Fulfillment, and more. Has a SaaS option for a large portion of the offering.
SAPSCMThe Big Dog for SCM, SAP expanded their ERP capabilities into MRP, Spend, HCM, CRM, and more. Note that SAP is moving all implementations to SAP HANA, an in-memory database for real-time processing.
IBMWatson Supply ChainIBM offers end-to-end supply chain visibility and provides Watson Insights for process and logistics improvement. Supports OM, WM, Integration, and Connect.
MicrosoftDynamics 365 for Finance and OperationsFinancial, operational, SCM and fully-customizable, SaaS-based application.

There are thousands of smaller SCM and ERP-SCM vendors out there .. many are SaaS-based, representing low barriers to entry, with trial versions.

ED: As Article Publish dates are frozen in time, it is quite possible reviewed vendors and their capabilities may have advanced beyond those presented herein. Please accept my apologies for my shortcomings. A note to vendors: please reach out to advise your current offering capabilities and I will update.

SCM Audiences

Many industries rely on supply chains and can benefit from a robust SCM implementation:

  • Retailers with complex supply chains require a lot of coordination and inventory management. SCM can help to streamline processes by providing real-time visibility into inventory levels and product availability. Retailers will see reduced costs and improved efficiency by optimizing their inventory levels and reducing stockouts.
  • Logistics companies have to manage large volumes of shipments, coordinating with multiple parties, including suppliers, manufacturers, carriers, and customers. SCM helps to automate these processes, providing real-time visibility into shipment status and location. Logistics companies can improve efficiency and reduce costs by optimizing transportation routes and reducing delays.
  • Manufacturing companies have complex supply chains that require coordination and supply management across multiple vendors for raw materials. SCM helps to streamline material acquisition processes with real-time visibility into production status and material availability. This helps manufacturers manage costs and improve efficiency by optimizing their production processes and reducing downtime.

In short, DSCM can help businesses in a wide range of industries to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and improve sustainability. Within these companies, titles a sales effort should pursue include:

  • SC and SCM Owners / Operators
  • SC Operations, SC Logistics Titles
  • Logistics and Transportation Operators
  • IT Admins
  • Finance
  • Materials and Manufacturing Processes Operators

Conversations will engage a wide variety of departments .. be prepared to orchestrate cross-department discussions.


In conclusion, digital supply chain management has emerged as a critical strategy for businesses to stay competitive in today’s fast-paced and highly interconnected world. By leveraging the power of advanced technologies such as big data analytics, artificial intelligence, and the Internet of Things (IoT), organizations can gain real-time visibility and insights into their supply chain operations. This enables them to make more informed decisions, reduce costs, improve efficiency, and enhance customer satisfaction.

Implementing digital supply chain management is not without challenges. It requires significant investments in technology, infrastructure, and talent, as well as a cultural shift toward data-driven decision-making. Organizations must also address concerns around data privacy and security, supply chain disruptions, and the potential impact on human jobs. In the mid- to long-term, the benefits of digital supply chain management far outweigh the cost and effort, and businesses that embrace this approach are well-positioned to succeed in the future.

5W – Application Performance Management (APM)

Thank you for reading! Please see “Why 5W?”  for context, methodology and disclaimers.

APM Overview

Application Performance Monitoring (APM) is an important tool used to monitor and optimize application performance. APM provides real-time insights, allowing businesses to detect and diagnose issues quickly, reducing downtime and improving the overall customer experience. There are many benefits of APM, including increased operational efficiency, improved customer satisfaction, and enhanced business performance.

APM is comprised primarily of system and network monitoring, measuring performance and availability of software applications to end consumers. Note that end consumers can be end users or other systems relying on the output from an application. These dependencies can impact downstream application performance, compounding to the point of failed Service Level Agreements ( SLAs) and diminished user experience.

APM can be classified into two primary types: Passive and Active monitoring.

  • Passive monitoring collects data from an application without active interaction .. examples include reading log files, monitoring network traffic and observing system metrics. Passive monitoring is useful for identifying issues in production environments, especially as there is no direct interaction with the application itself, thus no performance impact.
  • Active monitoring is the approach to measuring the performance of an application by simulating user activity and measuring response time of application components. Active monitoring generates synthetic traffic and activity to simulate user behavior, and can identify potential performance problems along the way. This type of monitoring is particularly useful during the testing phase of an application, as it can help developers identify performance bottlenecks prior to the application going live. Active monitoring can also help IT teams optimize application performance by identifying areas where additional resources may be required. Active monitoring may require application ‘hooks’ within or close to each component for data collection creating the risk of the monitoring impacting the performance of the application.

A centrally-managed combination of collecting and correlating both passive and active monitoring provides comprehensive insights into the performance of an application.

APM Business Benefits

One of the primary benefits of APM is increasing the operational efficiency of an application. By monitoring application performance, businesses can identify and address issues before they become major problems. This helps to reduce the amount of time and resources needed to manage and maintain applications, freeing up IT teams to focus on other critical tasks. In addition, APM can help to automate many of the monitoring and management processes, further improving operational efficiency.

Another significant benefit of APM is improved end-customer satisfaction. Slow or unreliable applications can have a significant impact on customer satisfaction and can lead to lost revenue and damage to a company’s reputation. With APM, businesses can identify and address issues that impact user experience quickly, improving the overall performance of their applications and providing a better experience for customers.

APM also provides businesses with enhanced business performance. By monitoring application performance, businesses can identify areas where improvements can be made, such as optimizing application code or upgrading hardware. This helps to improve application performance, reducing downtime, and increasing productivity, resulting in improved business performance.

APM Capabilities

A bit of discussion about application architecture and application composition (multiple applications participating in an overall business process) is in order.

Business requirements and customer opportunities have driven application architecture to evolve in recent years to include loosely-coupled (requiring no detailed knowledge of, or persistent connection to a remote system) integration with outputs of other applications. This evolution has enabled applications to be more interactive with background business systems through the paradigm of real-time access to business and ephemeral data. Using these capabilities, developers write applications to employ software automation to complete business activities in real time.

The immediate value to this is improved, real-time interactivity business systems. This has delivered multifold advantages to business processes. Some application composition examples include:

  • Credit card processing: Call-outs to credit card systems to gain approval for a transaction.
  • Inventory transactions: Call-outs to an inventory system to remove items from a remote inventory to add to a shopping cart. Counts in each must be incremented / decremented as part of a single transaction and rolled back should a shopping session be terminated, or a credit card / payment fail.
  • Application embedding: A host application exposes content from another application as part of the host application UI. An example of this is map-enabled applications, or mash-ups that overlay data from disparate sources into a composite experience.

Beyond enabling business processes, these capabilities improve end-user experience with the underlying application. Further, integration delivers more relevant data and reduces the level of effort on an application architect: architects can design applications to consume, rather than writing robust supporting services. Note that In many cases, building external services likely falls outside the core business capabilities of the application architect, and would stall application enhancements.

Architects now build applications with the expectations of interaction with data from other applications as well as user data and results from internal operations. A representative application diagram follows:

As an example, please imagine this diagram as one of several, stacked one above and one below:

  • The ‘External Systems / Service Consumers’ box at the top accepts inputs / actions from the ‘Services’ box at the bottom of the diagram above it.
  • Each application emits data to one-to-many systems and potentially receives data from many other systems.
  • The applications are loosely-coupled, without persistent connections to each other .. each connection and data interactivity is made on-demand.  These applications must be written to manage these connections and contain robust failure management in the case a connection cannot be made within the SLA.

Real-world use of this paradigm doesn’t really involve stacking .. rather, the applications are loosely-coupled, exchanging data along published endpoints. Note that connecting external applications to exchange data introduces interdependencies which can create performance risks. These can manifest themselves with SLA impact or expose consuming applications to security risks, hence the need for APM.

APM Use Cases

Five common use cases for application performance monitoring include:

  • Detecting and diagnosing performance issues within an application or service. By monitoring key performance metrics such as response time, latency, throughput and error rates, teams can quickly identify and troubleshoot issues before they impact end users.
  • Helping teams plan and optimize their capacity by monitoring resource utilization, identifying bottlenecks and forecasting future demand. This enables teams to allocate resources more efficiently and avoid over- or under-provisioning infrastructure.
  • Tracking SLAs that define performance thresholds and uptime requirements. Application performance monitoring helps teams enforce SLAs by monitoring key performance metrics and alerting teams when SLAs are at risk of being breached.
  • Monitoring user experience by tracking user behavior and engagement metrics such as session length, path through the application, application abandonment and conversion rates. This help teams identify usability issues, optimize user flows and improve overall user satisfaction.
  • Security and compliance through monitoring access logs, audit trails and other security-related metrics. This helps teams detect and respond to security incidents, identify compliance gaps, and maintain regulatory compliance.

APM is a powerful tool to monitor an application orchestration enabling application owners to manage performance, security, SLAs and so much more.

APM Providers

Several vendors have capabilities in the space. Given the complexity, there is a lot of overlap and virtually no ‘one size fits all’ solutions. With that said, not all end customers require an OSFA solution and will select a vendor that fits their needs. A short list follows:

VendorProduct / CapabilitiesNotes
AppNettaAppView: End-user experience on the web. FlowView: Application usage to network bandwidth correlation. PathView: Monitoring and troubleshooting along the network path from the end user to your application.Delivered as a SaaS solution.
DatadogApplication-based APM. 
DynatraceObservability, security and AIOps. 
ExtraHopStream analytics platform providing visibility into activity in an IT infrastructure.Captures raw, unstructured data streams and converts these into cogent metrics.
New RelicFull-stack APM capabilities, including application, hybrid and public cloud, infrastructure, mobile and web site. 
ManageEngineIncludes server monitoring, application server monitoring, database monitoring, web services monitoring, virtualization monitoring, cloud monitoring and an array of other application management capability.ME also provides managed IT services.
PulsewayMobile-based APM. 
Sumo LogicTool consolidation across DevSecOps. 

ED: As Article Publish dates are frozen in time, it is quite possible reviewed vendors and their capabilities may have advanced beyond those presented herein. Please accept my apologies for my shortcomings. A note to vendors: please reach out to advise your current offering capabilities and I will update.

APM Audiences

While APM is not industry-specific, there are a few industries with critical needs for APM:

  • Healthcare organizations rely on complex applications  to deliver critical patient care services and must know if parts of their orchestration are not performing properly.
  • E-Commerce companies rely on complex orchestrations that include shopping carts, inventory management, fulfillment, payment and more. They must know if components within their orchestration are underperforming
  • Managed Service Providers / Cloud Service Providers use APM to monitor their operations and provide reports to their customers.

Within (and beyond) these industries, there are several buying audiences:

  • IT Operations are responsible for ensuring the smooth functioning of an organization’s IT infrastructure. They can use APM products to monitor the performance of critical applications and identify potential issues before they impact users.
  • Application and Integration Architects can use APM during prototype and proof of concept stages of offering development to ensure dependent systems can scale
  • Developers need to ensure that their applications are performing optimally. They can use APM products to identify performance bottlenecks and optimize code to improve application performance.
  • Product Owners care deeply about their offerings and are always looking for ways to improve it to gain market share. One way is to expand their offering to leverage outside services (traffic overlays atop mapping software as an example). However, once services are added, complexity increases and dependencies on these external data / operations rise to the fore. APM helps Product Owners and their development teams identify errant services, missed SLAs and the like.

Again, any organization with application integrations is a candidate for APM.


Any business that manages applications and integrations should look closely at APM. APM helps businesses to optimize their application orchestrations and can improve customer experiences while saving money by reducing costly downtime. Organizations benefit when they identify and address application performance issues quickly and can deploy maintenance personnel directly to the issue. The benefits of APM are significant and help businesses improve their operations, enhance customer satisfaction and increase profitability.

5W – Business Process Management (BPM)

Thank you for reading! Please see “Why 5W?”  for context, methodology and disclaimers.

BPM Overview

Businesses can make repeatable processes more stable and efficient by engaging with the Business Process Management (BP​​M) paradigm. BPM is a well-defined set of disciplines for breaking down, standardizing and executing the steps in a business process to achieve efficiencies. BPM is a systematic approach to managing and improving processes that drive an organization.

Business process examples include common LOB operations, like:

  • Expense reporting
  • New customer account
  • Customer ordering
  • Fulfillment and logistics

Many industry-specific business operations include:

  • Change management
  • New hire or new partner onboarding
  • Claims and returns

A representative list of BPM use cases can be found on the Appian site.

BPM Business Benefits

BPM is designed to achieve increased efficiency by identifying and streamlining inefficient processes. BPM helps organizations reduce waste, increase productivity and reduce errors. This leads to faster and more reliable service delivery, which can help organizations gain a competitive edge.

An effective BPM implementation leads to cost savings by eliminating unnecessary steps in processes, reducing the time it takes to complete tasks and minimizing the use of physical resources. Once implemented, BPM can help organizations identify other areas where automation or outsourcing may be more cost-effective.

With improved processes, customer service will improve, as organizations can respond more quickly to customer needs and provide a better overall experience. This may manifest itself as reduced wait times for customers, improved order accuracy and enhanced customer communications.

BPM can contribute to the ability of an organization to achieve and manage regulatory and standards compliance. With standardized processes and controls, organizations enjoy normalized output, reducing the time it takes to generate reports for compliance purposes. This can help organizations avoid costly fines and legal issues, and as a bonus: provide an improved reputation in the marketplace.

BPM is a pillar to help organizations improve agility and responsiveness to changing business conditions. Through standardized inputs and processes, monitoring and analysis can occur in real-time, creating opportunities for improvement and making adapt rapidly to improve the chances of success. This can help organizations respond to customer needs more effectively and stay ahead of the competition.

BPM Capabilities

What makes a good BPM offering? Let’s review several key considerations and best practices that exist in the BPM discipline:

  • Automation is a key factor in successful BPM and can be achieved via a wide range of solutions, from home-grown to customizable packaged products. Automation enables repeatable steps that ensure consistent execution and makes troubleshooting easier.
  • Componentization and Reuse are other key factors in successful BPM. The ability to isolate business processes for specific purposes or that are part of a larger interaction makes the BPM system more manageable.
  • A holistic view of supporting (on which the subject process relies) and dependent (where the subject process supports other processes) business processes lends itself to an effective BPM effort.
  • Modeling as close to reality as possible ensures the needs of the audiences of business processes are met.
  • Authority and control to ensure the business processes follow the designed course.
  • Regular measurement interactions and feedback from audiences are a necessity.
  • Once processes are normalized, optimization can be executed on an ongoing basis.

Businesses contend with numerous inefficiencies which lead to unnecessary costs, poor quality and low customer satisfaction. By utilizing BPM and carefully analyzing processes, businesses can discover areas of improvement. Implementing BPM can help increase quality, production and efficiency by cutting out unnecessary procedures and improving vital processes.

BPM means understanding business processes to ensure they run efficiently and are continuously improved. BPM is an activity, a practice or a discipline .. even a journey. It is not a product.

Three main components of BPM:

  • Management Approach: Company management typically defines processes by identifying activities, tracking performance and working toward optimization. Management should look closely at ‘build versus buy’, as many processes are already created and documented, requiring only small modifications, or none at all.
  • Methodology: Deploy a steady cycle of improving business processes, helping businesses advance the efforts in phases, defined activities and best practice techniques.
  • Technology: BPM technology includes software that can map and record business processes to enhance analytics and communication. Technology helps automate activities and track performance.

In essence, BPM technology helps businesses have a clear understanding of various processes within the company in order to boost performance, quality and efficiency.

BPM Use Cases

A few brief samples for review and clarification:

  • Use Case: Expense Report
    • Employee incurs a business expense.
    • Employee completes an expense claim form in an automated system.
    • The form is routed to a manager who will approve or reject the form.
    • If the expense is over a certain amount, it may be routed to a senior manager (many BPs keep a lower-level manager in the loop for visibility).
    • The appropriate manager approves or rejects the form.
    • The approved form is sent for payment -or- the rejected form goes back to the employee for more clarification.
    • The form is sent for payment.
    • A check / credit is issued to the employee.
  • Use Case: Order Entry and Fulfillment
    • A sales representative closes a business deal.
    • The sales representative enters the order into an automated system.
    • The order is routed to a manager who will approve or reject the order.
    • If over a certain amount, the order is submitted into a credit approval process.
      • The sales representative, the manager and a senior manager are notified.
      • Credit approval or rejection will determine a discrete set of tasks.
    • When approved, the order is sent to fulfillment.
      • If a physical product, is routed to an appropriate warehouse; fulfillment intelligence determines which warehouse or if an order needs to be sent to manufacturing.
      • The sales representative, the manager and a senior manager are notified.
      • The customer is notified.
    • The order ships.
      • Singly or in multiple batches.
      • From one warehouse, or many.
    • The invoice is sent to the customer.
      • The sales representative is notified.
      • The order is placed into a periodic (weekly or monthly) report.
      • Accounting is notified of the customer purchase, ensuring a future credit check will take this order and invoice status into account.

Dynamic BPM systems include the logic referenced above, typically based on customer history, internal accounting practices and so on. Alerts keep interested parties in the loop and managers play a keep role in approving or rejecting steps to keep the process flowing.

BPM Providers

BPM providers run the gamut of automation / integration, to use-case-specific components like payroll and expense. The former lot is preferred if an organization has already automated business processes, the latter supports an organization evaluating a BPM roadmap. Your mileage may vary, depending on organizational maturity, incumbent systems, BPM priorities and more. Some companies in the space:

VendorOffering / CapabilitiesNotes
Appian Deployed as a platform with a wide variety of adaptable, low-code integration and automation solutions.
Bonitasoft Open-source BPM platform. Provides a number of self-contained applications and integration components.
blueprisim Now SS&C and blueprism. Offers a wide variety of department-level use cases.
IBMIBM Business Automation WorkflowA cloud-based BPM platform enabled with process automation, decision management, and case management capabilities.
MicrosoftMicrosoft Power AutomatePart of the Power Platform, Power Automate is a cloud-based BPM tool that allows users to automate workflows, create custom business processes, and integrate with other Microsoft applications. Offers a trial.
NintexProcess PlatformOffers a wide variety of pre-built solutions across industries. The Process Platform page has a good overview of the steps management should review as a means to plan their roadmap.  Acquired K2 in 2020.
OracleOracle BPM SuiteA member of the Oracle Business Process Management Suite, BPM is a complete set of tools for creating, executing, and optimizing business processes.
PegaPega Platform Data Integrations Security and ComplianceDeployed as a platform with a wide variety of adaptable, low-code integration and automation solutions. Offers a number of pre-built BPM solutions.
Zoho A platform filed with a wide variety of pre-built LOB applications.

ED: As Article Publish dates are frozen in time, it is quite possible reviewed vendors and their capabilities may have advanced beyond those presented herein. Please accept my apologies for my shortcomings. A note to vendors: please reach out to advise your current offering capabilities and I will update.

BPM Audiences

BPM will provide benefits to virtually any company. A few industry examples and benefits:

  • Manufacturing can deploy BPM to improve production processes, reduce waste and ensure product quality.
  • Financial institutions can deploy BPM to improve regulatory compliance, automate back-office processes and increase efficiency.
  • Healthcare can optimize patient care processes, reduce administrative burden and improve patient outcomes.
  • Retail can deploy BPM to optimize supply chain processes, manage inventory and improve customer service.
  • Educational institutions can deploy BPM to optimize student enrollment processes, improve administrative efficiency and enhance student outcomes.
  • Technology companies can deploy BPM to optimize software development processes, improve project management and increase efficiency.
  • Transportation companies: BPM can help transportation companies optimize logistics processes, reduce transportation costs, and improve customer service.

When offering a BPM solution to a prospect, consider these audiences and their motivation to deploy BPM:

  • Business leaders like the CEO, CIO and CTO typically make the final decisions, but unlikely the conversation will start with them. With that said, being prepared to speak with these audiences once an engagement has worked up the chain is a critical factor for success. They will be most interested in BPM because it can help them realize strategic goals such as improving efficiency, reducing costs and increasing customer satisfaction. They will not be interested in the ‘how’, or ‘when’ (with the exception of ASAP) .. they’ll just want it completed, on time and under budget.
  • Operations managers are interested in BPM as standardizing business processes will help them operate more efficiently by reducing waste and improving productivity.  By automating routine tasks and freeing up employee time, businesses can focus on more strategic initiatives and drive innovation.
  • IT professionals are interested in BPM beyond implementation: BPM enables the use of technology to automate processes and improve efficiency. IT will prove to be an active audience as BPM is rolled out, so their support is critical.
  • Compliance officers will see value in BPM as enacting stringent standards and practices for data collection will help them ensure that the organization can meet regulatory requirements and best practices.
  • Employees will embrace BPM as it automates time-consuming and repetitive tasks, leading to a more efficient and productive workplace. Getting employees on board is an important factor in a BPM effort. Involving employees during the scoping process will improve chances of success as employees can provide field-level experience: what are the good things about current processes, in what areas can BPM assist most effectively, and so on.
  • Consultants and analysts are interested in BPM because it is a growing field that provides opportunities for consulting engagements, research and analysis.

Any organization with business processes in any state is a candidate for a BPM discussion.


Business Process Management can provide a wide range of benefits to organizations, including increased efficiency, cost savings, better customer service, improved compliance, and agility. By implementing BPM, organizations can gain a competitive edge, reduce costs, and improve their overall performance.

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